Here you can read about the sense of touch it is the fifth article in the series about the senses.
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The first course in the series will cover signs of health and how you can know if the treatment you are taking or giving is helpful for the whole person or only for a small part of the person.
Some treatments seem to help but are actually turning acute minor or superficial complaints into more serious chronic conditions. This is called suppression. Sometimes one disease is replaced with another or the adverse effect cover up and mix with the original state.
There is a close connection between cure, general evolution of life, developmental stages and spiritual growth or mastering of life.
All these will be covered in an easy comprehensible way and unified into simple principles.
Archetypes can be used in many different ways and in most fields of life.
Archetypes make it easy to classify and understand qualities that are related but also to see which qualities that are opposite. Here is a map of Archetypes that I have developed. Let us explore.
Let us first look at some words and make a little exercise.
Try to find which two words that seem not to belong here.
As you look at them you realise they are not synonyms neither a class of words, but most of them express a quality that we can call an archetype. An archetype that could also be expressed with words like; strong, independent, decisive, irritability, cutting, heat, accident etc.
The word tenderness and harmony seems to not only misfit, but even to be almost opposite to the other words. You could say that one of the groups have qualities like the colour red, the other like the opposite green. But what are they? Not synonyms but rather archenyms or semionyms if we should invent a name for them. What should we use as a common word for the red or the green?
We can easily see if we organize the words that “Self-assertive” or a strong person with a strong “I” could represent the red words. The green words are more about adjusting to the other or the surroundings. You can say these represent the focus on myself or the other, I and You.
These two colours or groups of words represent two archetypes; Mature man and Young woman. Both are archetypical qualities that can be expressed in many different ways and in many different fields.
In the schema below you see the six main archetypes with the “Master” as number seven in the middle.
This illustration is a synthesis of knowledge from different fields and even with its simplicity it explains some of the most important aspects in so diverse fields of knowledge as astronomy, taxonomy, psychology, biology and many more.
You can easily see it has some basic geometric structures.
1: Each archetype has a polarity (The master has centre-periphery)
2: The zigzag from the child to young man, young woman, master, mature man, mature woman and old, represents the stages of development in life.
3: The three top ones represent maturity and age, while the three bottom ones represent the young and immature.
*My courses on archetypes covers more than ten other geometric relations and what they represent in life.
Let us look at the polarity between the two archetypes; The old and The Child.
As an archetype the old can both be used to describe a personality as well as qualities in nature.
We will start by describing a person that is typical of the archetype “The old” since that is easy to relate to.
This person does not need to be old of age, but will have some qualities that are more common as people get older.
The old is serious, responsible and like to have control. They will easily feel alone, isolated or estranged. They do not let people get close to them easily and will not show signs of weakness.
The control aspect can make them stuck and fixed particularly in how things should be, used to be or they need them to be.
There is an atmosphere of coldness, constriction and inhibition around these persons.
On a more abstract level you can say that any process that contracts and gets compact, harder and more material represents this quality. This archetype is cold, black, stiff and represents structure.
In chemistry you will recognize it in carbon with its blackness, hardness in diamonds, and being the backbone of the structure in all life as well as what is left when you burn things.
In botany the archetype is represented by evergreen trees. Living into very old age, often creating a dark forest, and not letting other plants grow close to them.
This kind of person has learned to master the challenges in life by taking control, taking charge, by observing how others have coped. It could be that early in life nobody was taking care of them, so they had to take care of themselves. It could be that early in life things were so painful that they needed to supress the emotions and put them deep into a hidden place within. It could also be that things were so scary that they needed to control as much as possible not to end up in similar situations. Some people are also just born serious and with a lot of duty.
These people will particularly get drawn towards persons dominated by the archetype “The child” because that represents what they need.
The child is the opposite archetype and by cultivating that part within “The old” gets closer to a balanced place in the centre, a place of mastery.
As an archetype anything said about The old finds its polarity in The child.
These persons are dependent of others, clingy, insecure and wants to be taken care of.
They love home life and family life and can be full of care and mothering feelings they are mild and playful.
Often they will be childish, timid, changeable, yielding and demanding.
As a polarity to The old, The child represents people that need to mature, become independent and take charge of the duties in life. They need to grow towards the old to find mastery in life.
Same axis – but opposite
Persons that are dominated by The old or The child will find their own polarity in the other. First we can see that both are concerned about others. The child will often focus on the closest people, people in the family, neighbours or close friends, often people that have been there all the way back to childhood. They will spend a lot of time making sure these close people get their needs of protection, food and care.
The old also has concern for others, but it is often for their staff, people at work, in the community, society or the bigger more extended family. When the old is concerned about the family it is more that they will feel the duty to gather the family together.
We can find common things in the axis The old-The child, but the easiest is to see the polarity. You can say they are inter-connected, that to become The old, you need to “suppress” the child and to become The child, you need to be “blind” to The old.
Often a person being dominated by The old will be attracted to The child as a partner or friend. The polarity will attract but also be the main challenge in a friendship and in a relationship it could even end up being the reason for a divorce.
The old will love the care, mildness and mothering quality of The child, but will feel strangled by the clinging and needy quality. The challenge is these relations can only be solved it they understand that they need to find the qualities they are searching in the other also within themselves.
The old need to challenge himself and be daring enough to be vulnerable, expose his needs, express his weakness and let others take decisions. The child also need to go within and say what can go wrong by making a decision myself, it could always be redone. Only by trying alone will I get the experience and wisdom to take responsibility.
So how can we find that aspect within, how do we use this in our life?
The old need to get in touch with his inner child, with his needs, with the more subtle aspects of life.
Here are a few sample exercises for the old:
1. Lay down for a few minutes when you come home from work, put your hands with the palms on the solar plexus and breath deep and slow. Just feel how your body feels; hot, cold, tired, tens, painful etc.
2. Ask yourself everyday what you should do today that you do only for taking care of yourself with no modal verbs (Should, have to etc.)
3. If you were a child is there any presents you would have liked, that you never got? Why not give them to yourself now? Or maybe a grown up version?
4. Indulge sometimes in something that you enjoy so much that you could imagine your mother, father or partner preparing that for you out of love and care.
5. Try to remember your dreams when you wake up, you might need to get used to snooze a bit.
6. When did you last time ask for a hug, ask for a kiss, a massage or just letting your head in the lap of your loved one.
7. Create nice atmospheres, burn candles, incense and play calming music like if you would prepare for nice company with yourself.
These are just a few exercises for the old to give you a taste.
I am building up a complete archetype online course to be available, press follow to be informed.
The Tree of Life is one of the most condenced esoteric symbols. It is like a map of the universe or God´s architectural drawing of the spiritual universe.
Some traditions use different terms, so I have tried to collect the main ones making it easier for you to compare and understand.
Enjoy – remember to press Like if you like and to Follow if you want to be updated on related articles.
Here is a short blog on Agate, followed by a deeper article for the reader that wants to explore Agate in a broader perspective. The article gives a unified perception on very different aspects of life.
The exploration of Agate took part on 4.th of June 2015.
AGATE – short version
Agate is a unique an easy gemstone to recognize even if it comes in many variations and colours.
It is one of the nice stones we get from Silica. Agate is a silicon dioxide (SiO2 ). We have already explored Amethyst and Jasper, but also Citrine, Topaz, Hellotrope, Carnelian, Onyx and Opal are all made from Silica.
The picture above shows some typical Agate nodes that have been cut in halves or in slices.
Inside the nodes that are created in volcanic rock, these bubbles of the volatile elements deposit layers. These layers create the nice stripes, the main characteristic of Agate. This is like the layers of Russian Matrjosjka dolls, or layers of existence.
This picture shows the similarity between the layers of Agate, the Matrjosjka dolls and layers of the human aura. We also can use this analogy for the layers in the atom, or in the expanding areas of action for the little baby; from the womb to the cradle, house, garden, village, country and whole world. (More about this in the article that follows)
This process where volatile substances condense and become rock, represents the very core of the qualities in this gemstone. In Agate the shapeless, formless hot gases condense or crystalize into fixed structured solid rock. They materialise into solidity. The dynamic forces in nature becomes fixed into a dead structure, or an analogous world where things float into each other seamless in a continuum becomes layered, fractioned and digitalized. Agate is created by hot, dynamic, volcanic gas bubbles condensing from the inner surface and in this way materialize layer by layer into a fixed structure.
Agate creates a connection between the formed, shaped, fixed, structured aspects of existence and the living creating forces that are behind everything. Like a meeting point or two way process in equilibrium between what the alchemist called Solve & Coagula.
In this way Agate helps you to dissolve false structures, false expectations that shape and hold you in a fixed frame. Your own delusions of must, have to, should, all the modal verbs. It releases you from having to do things that are based on your upbringing, your past, the expectations or demands from society and other people. It dissolves structures and let them become adjustable.
That gives you the ability to live out your true potential in full freedom from others. It gives you the freedom to feel the inner potential and let that stabilize into a new structure.
With softness it dissolves what holds you back from progressing and helps the potential that still is not manifested come forward in your life and condense, incarnate, and give you the structure you are becoming.
As a summary you can say that the potential that always was there, your inner truth, from the highest aspects of creation comes in with its fire and dissolves lies, what has become stuck and rigid, so the real you again can come forward and manifest!
This ends the short version.
AGATE ARTICLE – extended version, for you who want to see it from a broader perspective
The holonistic knowledge we gathered from Agate can be understood much broader if we look into some very varied approaches to reality.
Let us in this perspective explore some central aspects of physics, epistemology, psychology, genetics and evolution, to better understand the process in Agate.
It will give us a holonistic understanding, an understanding that describes the wholeness in a unified way and in perspective of a bigger wholeness. It is an understanding that combines the holistic or whole and the core or essence in a simple and beautiful way.
Everything physical that can be touched is made of molecules. But also fluids and gases consist of molecules. Molecules are at the threshold of matter. They are the building blocks of everything material or physical. But molecules themselves consist of atoms. We have a little bit more than 100 different atoms and they are the building blocks of all molecules.
Atoms alone as a separate entity, does not exist for a long time in nature before they relocate into new molecules. In very hot conditions molecules “evaporate” into atoms. And in even more energetic states atoms “evaporate” into ions and sub-atomic particles. As we move beyond the level of molecules the physical “matter like” nature evaporates into energy.
We call them particles but their nature is only particle like in the interactions of our experiments. Imagine a sea wave that froths at its top. The froth is its particle nature. The wave soon goes back to a wave nature and the froth is gone. You would not say the wave is built up of white froth, but it can turn into it for a short time. An electron in an atom can froth as a “particle” on one side of the atom, to dissolve into its wave nature and reappear some other place as a new froth “particle” of the wave on an other place in the atom. The froth is not moving like a particle, it appears and reappears. The “water” surrounding and atom in its surface can appear as an electron-particle or electron-wave. It is both at the same time.
You could also visualise it as an elastic surface completely transparent and when you put your finger on it, it reacts with light, like a plasma bulb. In short we can say that behind the apparently solid physical matter is something like an energetic sea that evades us. It only becomes apparent as it is touched by our experiment.
We have tried to explain it with different models through time. You can read more about the models of the atom throughout history here: “The Atom from solid balls to sparkling ghosts”
In essence the meeting point between solve and coagula is seen here between molecules and atoms, on the threshold between matter and energy. The magic between the dynamic creative force always dynamic and the stuck structured material nature.
Agate coming from the condensation of very hot rock, touches the same threshold, and has in its quality an ability to bring you in touch with this aspect of reality, the reality behind the apparent one.
Epistemology is the science of knowledge. In epistemology we know that there are certain basic things in existence we cannot know or prove. We simple have to believe them, or take them as our perception of reality.
We do not know it there is an external reality or if it all is only in our minds or consciousness. There are people that think both of these are the only right things to believe.
These different positions are called and epistemological stance or standpoint. It is a position, a belief that reflects your view of reality, your ontological view. It is basically what you believe is out there in the world, in existence, or if it is all a creation of your mind.
The two extreme positions in epistemology are the realist and the relativist.
The realist believes reality is the external world consisting of matter. This is a world that can be measured and examined and reduced into components. When you have the information to describe its structures and functions you can predict what will happen, almost like a machine or a program or game in a computer.
In short the realist is materialistic, reductionistic, positivistic and deterministic.
With this position it is obvious that knowledge is best collected and confirmed with the hypothetical deductive method. Randomised controlled trials that are collected in systemamic reviews are believed to reflect knowledge of reality solid as rocks. The world out there is material, can be cut into parts, can be examined and measured in an objective way, no doubt about it, says the realist. Is there nothing more between heaven and earth?
At the other extreme you have the relativist that believes it is all in your mind. Your senses of sight, sound, touch etc. are all frequencies or energy past on through your body to your brain, here they are changed from neural signals into what you perceive as being out there. All you can say anything about is how it appears to you in your mind. In the extreme case the relativist does not even believe the external world exists.
The world out there is more like an illusion, even matter is an exception in the universe, or regarded as just a short and locally very limited transitional state in a pulsating universe of energy. Matter is built up of elements that even if they are named “particles” have nothing in common with what we normally think of as particles. The smallest particles can only be described from the ghost tracts they leave us when we collide them under very extreme conditions. From this perspective the relativist has a point too.
The relativist would say that what you perceive is changing with the changes in your awareness or stage of evolution. The whole external world as you see it now, might change to a land of shadows when you perceive the reality behind, and that new reality becomes the real reality, to borrow the analogy from Plato´s cave analogy.
As you evolve and become more and more in contact with the original creative forces you are even at the point where your own reality is formed. Matter becomes the veil of Maya, causations becomes illusion as all becomes a matter of increased synchronicity, it is no point in examining the external world because it will all change as your awareness changes. It is all about your mind and your awareness.
For the relativist sitting on a mountain and meditating year after year, will not be isolation and exclusion, but might be experienced as a much deeper and broader presence with the world than the realist can ever imagine.
We live in a time where the realist dominates, but it has not always been so, and more and more people start to see how extremely limited and stuck they can be. The pendulum is about to swing again.
We could say that the realist is as stuck on solid matter as the materialized rock. The relativist on the other side is difficult to fix, more like the volatile element in the formation of Agate. He is like the unperceivable plasmatic field condensing to gas, fluids and finally becoming mater-realized layers of Agate.
It is possible to define positions between these two extremes. One could suggest that an “energist” neither believes in matter nor that all is in your mind, but that we have to go with the flow, that all is in a process of flux.
Agate can help to resolve or give a balanced perspective if one is stuck in the extremes of epistemology and not able to see both perspectives.
It does this by acting into the very core of your being.
Our awareness has many levels even deep layers that we are not aware off. In psychology Carl Gustav Jung is known for having discovered and named the deepest of these, the collective unconscious. We normally relate to our psychological nature through what we experience as “Me” the ego or we could say the sum of our thoughts, feelings and senses. The awaken “Me” or “Ego” is what we regard as our awareness.
But we have also deeper layers. The next layers are the sub-conscious, the unconscious and the collective unconscious with less and less access or awareness in each. Let us explore this closer.
It is like we sit on the frothing top of a wave representing the ego. This narrow peak or top is based on or is on top of a much broader upper part of the wave. This bigger part represents the larger sub-conscious in our analogy. Here we collect all the ego has experienced through life, all our experiences, associations, memories and dreams. You only remember some of them, most of the memories or dreams you ever had are like lost. All that are “lost” are there but deeper down in the wave. This is what we call the unconscious. It is called unconscious because we have a big difficulty getting access to these dreams and memories.
The wave is not alone, it merges with all other waves becoming the sea and the sea has in its deep realms a black state that connects all seas and all waves. If we imagine we collect all that all people that ever lived have ever experienced, we can imagine we are going to the deep deep levels of the sea, connecting all waves that exist and ever existed.
Deep within we have a potential connection to this debt, we use this material in our dreams and it can flow forward to us through art, symbol, intuition and creativity. It is there in art works, in symbols and concepts the humans have “created” or should we rather say manifested from the collective unconscious. You could go so far to say that there is nothing appearing or being created in the human mind that has not already been there in the deep. Like no new wave in the sea is nothing but the same sea in a new form.
On our way back up from the deep sea of the collective unconscious that connects the frothing top of all the individuals that ever existed, we have degrees of increasing awareness but also degrees from bigger units of groups of humans, to smaller and smaller groups ending in the extended family, the nearest family and finally only you the individual at the narrow frothing top.
The more individual, the more objective aware, the more subjective the more you start to connect from within. In the deep unaware realms we are connected with everyone with all that is. We live in an illusion of separation. The price of individuation is separation, what many humans value most is what isolates them. The objective scientific ideal is analysing, separating and reducing, the price of it is separation. Going within to the realm of the deeper layers, to the inner life of the relativist is connecting us in the feeling of respect, consideration and brotherhood of man.
The price of individuation, of the individual with a structured ego of its own, is a loss of the collective knowledge base of experience, of a deep common coherent existence. The consequence of merging with the sea of the unconscious is a challenge of extinction of the individual in us.
Agate helps you to find a healthy balance in this process of individuation or merging with the all. If we are stuck in our individual ego it helps us to merge, if we are lost in the collective sea it helps us to individuate.
In genetics you could say that you are unique in your make up, but this uniqueness is based on your ancestors. Primarily the close family then the extended family, your ethnic group, the whole human kind and basically all life upon earth. This is very much like the wave we just described in psychology. We share a genetic pool, but that pool is again the result of a much bigger pool.
In the human genome just a fraction is believed to be unique to humans, we share a lot with animals and even bacteria and virus represents a huge percentage of the genetic sea where we are the top of one of its waves.
Genetically speaking you are the froth at the top of a genetic wave, a froth that only lasts your life span. If we connect this analogy with the section above we could challenge the idea of bacteria and virus as external invaders and even looking at them as reconnecting us with the debt as we evolve. Let us explore evolution a bit.
There are some interesting features to be seen in the evolution of life. Evolution comes with increased complexity and with increased integration of new abilities in the more complex organisms.
It is not like the increased complexity is the creation of something new it is rather the integration of something that is there in the external world. It could be viewed as if external qualities become internalized, or like a potential in the deep psychological sea emerges to the surface. Because it seems to emerge from the inside into the centre like from no-where, like a bubble in the sea suddenly breaking to the surface. Or the sea itself is rising up to form a frothing wave. Let is give some examples.
Science tells us that long time back the earth only contained minerals that were so hot that no water could cool down to even form a lake. As the earth cooled, condensation made rain and rain made the first shallow areas of water, the foundation for life was laid. But did life appear from an incidence or from the deep?
Imagine for a while all the stars just in our galaxy, sorry it is a request that we cannot even imagine, our mind just cannot. But we can imagine that many of them might have planets with similar conditions as our earth, actually also an imaginable number. And we have not even started to talk about all the galaxies or even all the universes in the metaverse! Nobody knows the amount of stars in our galaxy there are a few different estimations and some say 100 billion others 400 billion (100-400 milliards = 1-400 000 000 000). So if there is one with a planet like ours for every million it is still 100 00 – 400 000.
There are with no doubt an immense amount of planets that have developed shorter or longer time than our earth. The deep see of just our universe, has experienced it all in its deep unconscious, when life appeared at our planet it was not a new invention, it was not an accident, it was following the order of what has happened billions of billions of times before. So did life appear on the surface of the earth or emerge from the debt of the universe?
At one point a unit appeared that within itself contained life, the first cell also on our earth. During 2 billions of years (2 milliards = 2 000 000 000), that was the only kind of life on this planet. Within those cells a centre appeared, call it a hearth or a brain, that science calls a nucleus.
The first kind of cells that were there from the start are called prokaryotic, with the new creative control unit or headquarters they are called eukaryotic. Karyon is the name of the nucleus. First something appeared that had life within, now it got a nucleus within.
The less evolved prokaryotic cell has a huge amount of variation with multiple single celled organisms of different kinds, all being bacteria. With the eukaryotic cells we see less amount of organisms, the cells are bigger and eventually join together in multicellular beings. These beings become plants, fungi and animals. The clue to all of this is the new appearance of a nucleus in the centre.
If we move further up the line of evolution to plants and from monocots to dicots in the plant kingdom we also see that the transportation of fluids, the vasculation evolves from being organized in bundles (multi-) into a concentric distribution having a central point (nucleus) to organize around. When animal life evolves from cold blooded (ectotherm ) to warm blooded (endotherm) we also see a change in vasculation and the heart. Again something new like the nucleus appears within.
This time it is the heat that appears within. Warm-blooded animals keep their own temperature constant independent of the environment, the cold-blooded take the same temperature as the environment. Warm-blooded animals use a lot of what they take in from the environment as food to produce heat. The cold-blooded do not need to eat that much and can survive longer periods without food. They can even be almost dead during very cold or dry periods.
Warm blooded have a more energetic circulation too, more efficient with four chambers in the heart, like a 4 vault engine comparer to a 2 vault. They also keep the blood with oxygen and the blood without separated, showing the increased complexity.
There are an immense number of different viruses, many bacteria, less multicellular being and a few thousand mammals and birds at the top of evolution. Minerals have structure, plant also have structure but add life, growth and breathing, animals have all of the previous but add digestion and an internal space with organs and an internal inner life with sensations and an awareness of being a subject. An internal awareness is now appearing within. Humans have all that but have an increased autonomy and ability for abstraction, creating symbols and tools to change the environment for good or bad. An internal ability to create meaning, abstraction and symbols appear..
Like the frothing top of the wave the human abilities are on top of abilities of animals, fungi, plants, bacteria and virus. In the womb the human foetus goes through a repetition of the stages of life and as well after birth we complete the mineral nature by forming bone from cartilage and getting our second set of teeth. After that we have a period of completing our growth the plant like aspect, before we enter our teens with emotions, sensations, sexuality and finding out which is our heard. First then are we ready to mature into individual mental autonomy and laying the ground for stretching further later in life, further than the average human into the spiritual realms.
At the same time as we evolve, we expand our circle of action from the womb, to the cradle, to the floor, to the garden, to the closest streets, to the village, to bigger towns, to the country, to the world …..
Each step of transition is a phase of letting go of something to integrate the next step, the appearance of something new condensing within and the evaporation of some of the old, solve & coagula, each such transition or struggle to move on or let go is facilitated by Agate.
Going back to the analogy of the wave again we can say that at the top we have the rational human being, a realist with focus on the material manifestations, able to relate to other humans on objective and equal terms, living in a world were concepts and terms are well defined, where reality is regarded as objects, objects of physical or intellectual nature. It is an intellectual analytic person with an aim of discriminating and reducing reality, of deconstructing it and understand things by separating them to wave tops called particles, matter, concepts, things in short “matter of facts”.
As this person matures, finds himself in different situations that promote a contact with the deeper, and starts to see that all those matters of facts have no value if it is not of use to a subject or is understood by a subject, it start to soften up change its priorities and perspectives. Agate helps you to reach the top of the wave as well as transcend it.
If you are stuck in the “matter of facts” you might feel a desire for human warmth, for socialising, for relating to people from more warm and open cultures (If yours is a northern one), you might open to the inner world and evaluate the subjective realm. If you are stuck in any kind of segregation you will feel the warmth and value of opening up. You will appreciate and long to connect to the people with qualities from warmer countries and cultures.
Let Agate dissolve any fixed rigid or limiting conceptions or states in or of yourself, and let it help you to manifest your potential as a structure to come.
PS: The name Agate
The name comes from the Semitic aqiq or achit meaning separation of a new-born´s hair. A rite that is connected with the name giving is an offering of two compatible sheep for a boy and one for a girl. In greek it became achates a name also given to a river in Sicily where a deposit of chalcedonites was mined, becoming achates in latin and then Agate.
Even the separation of hair by shaving the new born and the name giving as a defined identity, can be seen as layers of separation or manifestation. Giving a new structure or identification.
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The Atom – building blocks of nature
Atoms are the basic building blocks of nature. The understanding of the atom has gone through exiting steps and we will explore the main ones.
“Atom” comes from átomos (Greek “ἄτομος”, from α-, “un-” + τέμνω – temno, “to cut”), which means uncuttable, or indivisible, something that cannot be divided further.
India – Kanāda and Vedic philosophy
Vaisheshika / Vaisesika (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक, IAST Vaiśeṣika), is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy, the Vedic system of India. It was related to the Hindu school of logic, Nyaya. The Vaisesika classifies in categories and says that all in the universe can be reduced to a given number of atoms. Kanāda is considered to be the founder and author of the Vaishesika Sutra (Full text at archive.org).
Kanāda says every object of creation is made of atoms (parmanu) which in turn connect and form molecules (anu). Sources disagree with the time Kanāda lived some say in the 6th century BCE some around the 2nd century BCE.
Greece – Democritus and Greek philosophy
The Greek Democritus (C 460- c 370 BC) is the one that got the fame for having discovered the atom. He mentions many Greek philosophers in his writings. Democritus inherited wealth and could travell and he purchased many writings of other philosophers. The theory of the atom is believed he got from Leucippus that influenced Democritus, but the very existence of Leucippus has been the subject of disagreement between scholars, even amongst the old Greeks themselves.
Democritus claimed that the properties of things were determined by the shape of its atoms. Sweet things had smooth atoms while bitter things are made up of sharp atoms. Not strange in the context of the stage of mathematics at that time in history and the preoccupation with geometry and shapes. Plato and Euclid were younger contemporaries.
If it was Kanāda, Leucippus or Democritus or somebody else who first put forward the concept is uncertain. Some even say the Greeks got the idea from the Egyptians. The god of creation standing between the nothing and the something Atum, also spelled Atom, is even said to be the source of the word atom. Ph.D. George G. M. James in his “Stolen Legacy: Greek Philosophy is Stolen Egyptian Philosophy” show how the concept of the god Atum ”the all and the not yet being” represent the principle of opposites as Democritus talks about the atom as ”movement of that which is” (To on) within ”that which is not” (To me on). James also makes arguments for the transliteration of the Egyptian word into Greek. If one is to accept this as the beginning of the concept of an atom it goes back to 4000 BC.
According to René Adolphe Schwaller de Lubicz (1887–1961) Egyptian gods, or Neteru (pl. – one Neter) as they are called were regarded as principles in nature, more than personifications. Personally I think it was both, as if the Egyptians were still in connection with a deeper layer of consciousness that is collective and is beyond both our awareness and the manifestations in nature.
Kanāda connected his atomic theory with the element and spoke of fire atoms and water atoms etc.
Dalton – Atoms as balls
The next mayor step in the understanding of atoms came from the English chemist, physicist, meteorologist, Quaker and mystic John Dalton (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844). The earliest mention of the idea came from his work on the absorption of gases (read on 21 October 1803, published):
Why does not water admit its bulk of every kind of gas alike? This question I have duly considered, and though I am not able to satisfy myself completely I am nearly persuaded that the circumstance depends on the weight and number of the ultimate particles of the several gases.
Dalton said elements are made of small atoms, and each atom of an element have the same size, mass, and other properties, while atoms of other elements are different. Atoms cannot be divided, or crushed. They are the building blocks and combine as a whole unit with other atoms to make the different compounds. Chemical reactions are combining, separating or changing the structure of the earlier compounds. Dalton also suggested a “rule of greatest simplicity”, but with the lack of experiments that could confirm it, it was controversial. It is likely to believe his mystical inclined mind was looking for a unified simplicity at the basis of nature.
He also regarded Hydrogen to be the unit = 1, which fits well with modern physics.
So far atoms are dense balls of different size and weight.
J.J. Thomson – electrons as raisins in the pudding
Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) discovered in 1897 that cathode rays were composed of an unknown particle. Calculations showed it to be much smaller than the atoms. Compared to its small size it had a very high negative electric charge. The first subatomic particle, the electron was discovered.
This made it necessary to have both positive and negative parts in the atom and the “pudding model” became the updated atom.
Rutherford – gold foil and the nucleus
The famous experiment by Rutherford, where the thinnest layer of gold foil was bombarded with alpha particles to measure the gold atoms – the gold puddings – resulted in discovering the void. Basically he rarely hit anything, most particles went straight through.
The nucleus was discovered and we got a centre with some far off satellites as electrons.
Niels Bohr – complementarity and levels
Niels Bohr discovered those electrons to move in energy levels and that they had a complementary nature as either showing themselves as particles or waves.
This can be difficult to understand, but let us make an analogy. Imagine you have a sheet of paper that you hold up in the air so that electrons going through the paper can create holes. If it is the particle side that goes through it creates a triangular hole if it is the wave nature a circular hole. By the end you have, lets say 50% of each. You conclude from the paper and its holes that reality consists of two things; triangles and circles. Then Bohr says; but imagine they are cones! If they go through with bottom or top they create a circular hole, if side vice the hole becomes triangular. Reality does not consist of triangles and circles but of cones. By going up from a two-dimensional plane to three dimensions, two different things become one and the same. But particles and waves are not flat, so the unification does not become three dimensional but at least four dimensional.
This might just confirm how the atom with time has started to challenge our perception, but we know that is is more unified in its particle-wave aspects than first thought.
Now the atom became like a solar system with a sunny nucleus and electron-planets circling around. The exception would be that more than one planet orbited in the same circle, but still it was a model of the micro cosmos that fitted with the macro cosmos. This model is still what many people believe, learn and teach.
But the modell has advanced more steps. Compare each level or orbital to a surface on a huge ball. With balls around balls, like the Russian Matrjosjka dolls. Imagine each surface of the balls to be a sea that is constantly pulsating. The inner ball pulsates with 1, the next ball is an octave and pulsates with 2, the third a quint and pulsates with 3, the next is an octave of the first octave, the fifth and sixth etc. all increase its waves with one wave length.
The electrons would be the white froth at the top of waves appearing and disappearing from one place to another, without moving from one place to the other. Like a musical note that has a constant sound and a few times additionally sparks up with a flash. The flashes would always amount to a set number in each ball and when one disappears another one appears at one other spot, but it does not move from spot to spot.
Schrödinger – The periodic table and quantum physics
Schrödinger turned the whole periodic table, all the atoms in the universe into mathematics. With equations and four variables he was able to explain all the building blocks or atoms. In many ways this is the most completed understanding in nature with big certainty and good descriptions. As soon as we enter the world of living things we become much more uncertain and different opinions take place one after the other or play against each other.
The atom with Schrödinger is similar but the surface of the balls turn into foggy mist
We can say that with the four variables and a few simple rules basically to explain that each atom is different than another in one way or the other, the principles or laws behind the atoms are simply and beautifully explained. With Schrødinger and his quantum numbers the atoms entered the world of quantum physics and probabilities.
Atom has changed from a geometric solid where shape was believed to carry qualities as taste and colour, into balls of different size and weight. Different shapes became one ball, turning to puddings, from puddings to minute solar systems where particles and waves became one wave-particle. And then into foggy mists that sparkle particles or wave tops almost like a person calling to different friends around the world and make their phone screen brighten up.
The solid ball atom has lost its materiel aspect, but the very small and extremely frequent appearance of “particles” creates a feeling, a perception of a solid surface. If we diminished over selves to the size of an atom, matter would disappear and a sparkling ghost would be the only thing left. It is the same as if you magnify the picture in a paper you would disappear between small coloured dots. Or if you have seen people with banners on a stadiun creating different colourful images, they might appear smooth and connected from distance but are just separated fragments.
The micro cosmos is quantified, but the driving force behind it is not. It is only our perception that is limited. We see circles and triangles where there are ghostly cones. The phenomenon we sense are more connected than our mind is able to perceive.
As we go deeper and deeper into matter it disappear in front of us, it becomes a sparkling fire or a potential energy that incarnates in a split second to excarnate in the next. The atom is like a ghost that comes and goes. Behind every material manifestation there is a ghost.